go: search | analyze | give feedback | references | terms | tree | partonomy | pulse | about / how to cite

All references linking terms to concepts in this project (544)

This list is comprised of those references that have been explicitly tied to both a term and a concept therefor linking the two.

Adler, H. 1877. Lege-Apparat und Eierlegen der Gallwespen. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 21:305-322.

Alam , S. M. 1952. Studies on 'skeleto-muscular mechanism' of the male genitalia in Stenobracon deesae Cam . Beiträge zur Entomologie 2:620-634.

Alam, S. M. 1951. The skeleto-muscular mechanism of Stenobracon deesae Cameron (Braconidae, Hymenoptera) - An ectoparasite of sugarcane and juar borers of India Part I Head and thorax. Aligarh Muslim University Publications (Zoological Series) on Indian Insect Types 3:1-174.

Albertson, G. W. 1921. A comparative study of the mouth parts of Vespa maculata Linn. (worker), ~ meIlifica Linn. (worker), Andrena pem1exa Smith (female) and Macremphytes varinas Norton (female). Contrib. BioI. Lab. Catholic Univ. Amer., Washington, D. C.

Alencar, I. D. C. C., and C. O. Azevedo. 2011. Review of Neurepyris Kieffer, 1905 (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae), a new synonym of Pristocera Klug, 1808. European Journal of Taxonomy 4:1-12.

Alencar, I. D. C. C., and C. O. Azevedo. 2011. Revision of Malagasy Odontepyris Kieffer (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae). Zootaxa 2935:26-40.

Alencar, I. D. C. C., and C. O. Azevedo. 2013. Reclassification of Epyrini (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae): a tribal approach with commentary on their genera. Systematic Entomology 38:45-80.

Alexander, B. A. 1992. An exploratory analysis of cladistic relationships within the superfamily Apoidea, with special reference to sphecid wasps (Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 1:25-61.

André, E. 1879. Species des Hymenopteres d'Europe et d'Algerie., 1012 pp.

Arnold, G. 1951. Sphecidae and Pompilidae (Hymenoptera) collected by Mr K M Guichard in West Africa and Ethiopia 1941-48. Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History, Entomology 2:95-183.

Arora, G. L. 1956. The relationship of the Symphyta (Hymenoptera) to other orders of insects on the basis of adult external morphology. Research Bulletin of the East Punjab University (Zoology) 90:85-119.

Ashmead, W. H. 1893. A monograph of the North American Proctotrypidae. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 45:1-472.

Ashmead, W. H. 1900. Notes on some New Zealand and Australian parasitic Hymenoptera, with description of new genera and new species. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 3:327-360.

Ashmead, W. H. 1903. Classification of the fossorial, predaceous and parasitic wasps or the superfamily vespoidea. The Canadian Entomologist 35:39-44.

Audouin, M. 1821. Observationes sur organes copulateures mâles des Bourdons Rapport lit par Latreille en lundi 9 avril . Ann. Gén. Sci. Phys. 8:285-289.

Audouin, V. 1824. Recherches anatomiques sur le thorax des animaux articulés et celui des insectes hexapodes en particulier. Annales de la Science Naturelles et Zoologiques 1:97-135-416-432.

Austin, A. 1983. Morphology and mechanics of the ovipositor system of Ceratobaeus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) and related genera. International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology 12:139-155.

Austin, A. D., and S. A. Field. 1997. The ovipositor system of the scelionid and platygastrid wasps (Hymenoptera: Platygastroidea): comparative morphology and phylogenetic implications,. Invertebrate Taxonomy 11:1-87.

Azevedo, C. O. 1999. A key to world species of Scolebythidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea), with description of a new species of Dominibythus from Brazil. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 8:1-5.

Azevedo, C. O. 1999. Additions to the Neotropical Epyrinae (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae), with description of a new species of Lepidosternopsis from Brazil. Iheringia, Série Zoologia 87:11-18.

Azevedo, C. O. 1999. Revision of the Neotropical Dissomphalus Ashmead, 1893 (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae) with median tergal process. Arquivos de Zoologia do Estado de São Paulo 35:301-394.

Azevedo, C. O. 2001. Systematics of the Neotropical Dissomphalus Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae) of the bicavatus group. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 45:173-205.

Azevedo, C. O. 2008. Characterization of the types of the Neotropical Pseudisobrachium (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae), with a key to species. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 25:737-801.

Azevedo, C. O. 2014. Revision of Trichiscus Benoît, 1956 (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae). Zootaxa 3802:318-334.

Azevedo, C. O. 2014. Synopsis of Bakeriella Kieffer, 1910 (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae). Zootaxa 3878:501-535.

Balhoff, J. P. 2011. Ontology Curator..

Balhoff, J., I. Mikó, M. J. Yoder, P. Mullins, and A. R. Deans. 2013. A semantic model for species description, applied to the ensign wasps (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae) of New Caledonia. Systematic Biology in press.

Baltazar, C. R. 1963. A new genus and nine new species of Philippine Braconidae (Hymenoptera). Pacific Insects 5:577-589.

Barbosa, D. N., and C. O. Azevedo. 2009. Laelius Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae) from Madagascar, with description of two new species. Zootaxa 2170:1-14.

Barbosa, D. N., and C. O. Azevedo. 2011. Phylogeny and reclassifi cation of Laelius (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) and description of four new species. Insect Systematics and Evolution 42:237-275.

Bartlet, E., R. Romani, I. Williams , and N. Isidoro. 1999. Functional anatomy of sensory structures on the antennae of Psylliodes chrysocephala L (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology 28:291-300.

Basibuyuk, H. H., and D. L. J. Quicke. 1995. Morphology of the antenna cleaner in the Hymenoptera with particular reference to non-aculeate families (Insecta). Zoologica Scripta 24:157-177.

Basibuyuk, H. H., and D. L. J. Quicke. 1997. Hamuli in the Hymenoptera (Insecta) and their phylogenetic implications . Journal of Natural History 31:1563-1585.

Basibuyuk, H. H., D. L. J. Quicke, A. P. Rasnitsyn, and M. G. Fitton. 2000. Morphology and sensilla of the orbicula, a sclerite between the tarsal claws, in the Hymenoptera. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 93:625-636.

Beaucournu-Saguez, F., and Y. Braverman. 1987. A new species of Levitinia Chubareva and Petrova (Diptera, Simuledae) from the Golan Heights, Israel. Annales de Parasitologie Humaine et Comparee 62:59-75.

Beck, D. E. 1933. A morphological study of the male genitalia of various genera of bees. Proceedings of the Utah Academy of Sciences 10:89-137.

Belokobylskij, S. A., and D. L. J. Quicke. 2000. Seven new genera of the subfamily Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from the Old World. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 9:111-141.

Belokobylskij, S., R. Wharton, and J. La Salle. 2004. Australian species of the genus Opius Wesmael (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attacking leaf-mining Agromyzidae, with the description of a new species from South-east Asia . Australian Journal of Entomology 43:138-147.

Berlese, A. 1909. Gli insetti: ioro organizzazione, sviluppo, abitudini e rapporti coll'uomo Volume primo embriologia e morphologia. Via Kramer, Milano 1044 pp.

Bertone, M. A. 2009. HAO Curator..

Betts, A. D. 1923. Practical bee anatomy.Benson. 88 pp.

Beutel, R. G., F. Friedrich, S.-Q. Ge, and X.-K. Yang. 2014. Insect morphology and phylogeny. De Gruyter, 516 pp.

Beutel, R., and E. Baum. 2008. A longstanding entomological problem finally solved? Head morphology of Nannochorista (Mecoptera, Insecta) and possible phylogenetic implications. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 46:346-367.

Beutel, R., and L. Vilhelmsen. 2007. Head anatomy of Xyelidae (Hexapoda: Hymenoptera) and phylogenetic implications. Organisms, Diversity & Evolution 7:207-230.

Bigelow, R. S. 1954. MORPHOLOGY OF THE FACE IN THE HYMENOPTERA. Canadian Journal of Zoology 32:378-392.

Bin, F. F. 1981. Defintion of female antennal clava based on its plate sensilla in Hymenoptera Scelionidae Telenominae. Redia 64:245-261.

Birket-Smith, S. J. R. 1981. The male genitalia of Hymenoptera – a review based on morphology in Dorylidae (Formicoidea) . Entomologica Scandinavica, Supplement 15:377-397.

Blaimer, B. B. 2011. Untangling complex morphological variation: taxonomic revision of the subgenus Crematogaster (Oxygyne) in Madagascar, with insight into the evolution and biogeography of this enigmatic ant clade (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology.

Bohart, G. E. 1980. New Species of North American Bees of the Genus Dufourea (Hymenoptera, Halictidae) with Descriptions of Two Previously Undescribed Females .:21.

Bohart, R. M. 1990. New species of Solierella from western North America (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae). Psyche 97:193-202.

Bohart, R. M. 1992. The genus Oxybelus in Chile (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae, Crabroninae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 1:157-163.

Bohart, R. M., and A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World, A Generic Revision. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA 695 pp.

Bohart, R. M., and D. S. Horning. 1971. California Bembicine Sand Wasps (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Bulletin of the California Insect Survey 13:1-49.

Bolton, B. 1990. Abdominal characters and status of the cerapachyine ants (Hymenotpera, Formicidae). Journal of Natural History 24:53-68.

Bolton, B. 1994. Identification Guide to the Ant Genera of the World. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Bolton, B., and B. L. Fisher. 2008. The Afrotropical ponerine ant genus Asphinctopone Santschi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 1827:53-61.

Bordas, L. 1893

Borden, J. H., L. Chong, and A. Rose. 1978. Morphology of the elongate placoid sensillum on the antennae of Itoplectis conquisitor. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 71:223-227.

Börner, C. 1919. Stammesgeschichte der Hautflügler. Biologisches Zentralblatt 39:145-186.

Boulangé, H. 1914. L'appareil copulateur de Tenthredella temula Scop. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 1914:260-266.

Boulangé, H. 1914. Sur les appareils copulateurs de Dolerus gonager F et de Dolerus nigratus MUII [Hym Tenthredinidae]. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 1914:416-418.

Boulangé, H. 1924. Recherches sur l’appareil copulateur des Hyménoptères et spécialement des Chalastogastres. Mémoires et Travaux de la Faculté Catholique de Lille 28:1-444.

Bourguignon, T., and Y. Roisin. 2006. A new genus and three new species of termitophilous staphylinids (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) associated with Schedorhinotermes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in New Guinea. Sociobiology 48:1-13.

Boxshall, G. A. 2004. The evolution of Arthropod limbs. Biological Reviews 79:253-300.

Bracken, D. 1961. The external morphology of two eastern species of the genus Anoplonyx (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), with special reference to Anoplonyx luteipes (Cresson). Canadian Entomologist 93:573-593.

Brock, J. 1982. A systematic study of the genus Ophion in Britain (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 125:57-97.

Brodsky, A. K. 1992. Structure, functioning and evolution of tergum in alate insects II: Peculiarities of organization of a wing-bearing tergal plate in insects of different orders. Entomological Review 71:20-28.

Brothers , D. 2012. HAO contributor..

Brothers, D. 1975. Phylogeny and classification of the aculeate Hymenoptera, with special reference to Mutillidae. Kansas University Science Bulletin 50:483-648.

Brothers, D. J. 1970. Discovery of the Mutillid Subfamily Typhoctinae in South America, with Description of a New Species (Hymenoptera). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 43:302-308.

Brothers, D. J. 1994. A New Genus and Four New Species of Mutillidae Associated with Brachyponera lutea Mayr (Formicidae) in Western Australia (Hymenop tera). Australian Journal of Entomology 33:143-152.

Brothers, D. J. 2011. A new Late Cretaceous family of Hymenoptera, and phylogeny of the Plumariidae and Chrysidoidea (Aculeata). ZooKeys 130:515-542.

Brothers, D. J., and J. M. Carpenter. 1993. Phylogeny of Aculeatea: Chrysidoidea and Vespoidea. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 2:227-302.

Brown, W. L. 1974. A remarkable new island isolate in the ant genus Proceratium (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) . Psyche 81:70-83.

Brown, W. L. 1975. Contributions toward a reclassification of the Formicidae V Ponerinae, tribes Platythyreini, Cerapachyini, Cylindromyrmecini, Acanthostichini, and Aenictogitini. 15:1-115.

Bucher, G. 1948. The anatomy of Monodontomerus dentipes Boh, an entomophagus chalcid. Canadian Journal of Research, Section D, Zoological Sciences 26:230-281.

Buffington, M. 2007. The occurence and phylogenetic implications of the ovipositor clip with the Figitidae. Journal of Natural History 41:33-36.

Buffington, M. L. 2009. Description, circumscription and phylogenetics of the new tribe Zaeucoilini (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae), including a description of a new genus . Systematic Entomology 34:162-187.

Buffington, M. L., and S. J. Sheffer. 2008. North American species of Agrostocynips Diaz (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae), parasitoids of Agromyzidae (Diptera): bionomics and taxonomy . Zootaxa 1817:39-48.

Buffington, M. L., and S. van Noort. 2012. Revision of the Afrotropical Oberthuerellinae (Cynipoidea: Liopteridae). Zootaxa 202:1-154.

Buffington, M., and M. Forshage. 2014. The description of Garudella Buffington and Forshage, new genus (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae)..

Buffington, M., and S. van Noort. 2013. Revision of the Afrotropical Mayrellinae (Cynipoidea: Liopteridae), with the first record of Paramblynotus from Madagascar. Zootaxa in prep.

Bugnion, E. 1888. Recherches sur le développement postembryonnaire, l'anatomie et les moeurs de l'Encyrtus fuscicollis . Reçu. zool. Suisse, prem. série 5:435-534.

Bugnion, E. 1923. Les organes buccaux de la Scolie (Scolia bifasciata Rossi). Bull. Soc. Ent. Suisse 13(6): 285-313.

Bugnion, E. 1924. Le sac infrabuccal et Ie pharynx des fourmis. Soc. BioI. Compt. Rend. 91: 998-1000.

Burks, K. 2015. Dendrocerus mexicali redescription. in prep.

Burks, R. 2011. personal communication..

Busck, A. 1917. The pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella. Alexandria Journal of Agricultural Research 9:343-370.

Butcher, F. G. 1964. The Florida fig wasp, Secundeisenia mexicana (Ashm), and some of its hymenopterous symbionts. The Florida Entomologist 47:235-238.

Caleca, V., and G. Mineo. 1995. On the genus Dyscritobaeus Perkins, 1995 (Hymenoptera, Proctotrupoidea: Scelionidae). Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria 'Filippo Silvestri' Portici 50:9-21.

Cameron, P. 1881. Notes on Hymenoptera, with descriptions of new species. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 1881:555-577.

Cameron, P. 1888. Insecta Hymenoptera (Families Tenthredinidae - Chrysididae) Vol 1. Biologia Centrali Americana 33:1-487.

Cameron, P. 1897. New species of Hymenoptera from Central America. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 19:261-279.

Carayan, J. 1962. Observations sur l'appareil odorifique des Hétéroptères particulièrment celui des Tingidae, Vianaididae et Piesmatidae. Cahiers des Naturalistes 18:1-16.

Carlet, G. 1890. Mémoire sur le venin et l'aiguillon de l'Abeille. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie 9:1-17.

Carlson, S. D. 1990. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF INSECT GLIA. Annual Review of Entomology 35:597-621.

Carpenter, J. M., and B. R. Garcete-Barrete. 2005. Revision of the genus Parazumia de Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae; Eumeninae). Folia Entomologica Mexicana 44:21-34.

Carpenter, J. M., and J. M. Cumming. 1984. A character analysis of the North American potter wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae; Eumeninae). Journal of Natural History 19:877-916.

carpenter, J. M., and J. W. Wenzel. 1988. A new species and nest type of Mischocyttarus from Costa Rica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae; Polistinae), with descriptions of nests of three related species. Psyche 95:89-99.

Casteel, D. B. 1912. The behavior of the honey bee in pollen collection.:36.

Cave , R. D., and M. J. Gaylor. 1987. Antennal sensilla of male and female Telenomus reynoldsi (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae). International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology 16:27-39.

Chang-Ti Tang et al. (in prep) Twelve new species of Dryocosmus Giraud gallwasps from Taiwan and mainland China (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini)

Chapman, R. F. 1998. The insects: structure and function 4th edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York, Melbourne 770 pp.

CL

Cockerell, T. 1924. Notes on the structure of Bees. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 26:77-85.

Comstock, J. H., and J. G. Needham. 1898. The Wings of Insects Chapter III (Continued). American Naturalist 32:335-340.

Crampton, G. 1914. Notes on the thoracic sclerites of winged insects. Entomological News (Philadelphia) 25:15-25.

Crampton, G. 1914. On the misuse of the terms parapteron, hypopteron, tegula, squamula, patagium and scapula. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 22:248-261.

Crampton, G. 1923. A comparison of the labium in certain Holometabolous insects from the standpoint of phylogeny. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 25:171-180.

Crampton, G. C. 1909. A contribution to the comparative morphology of the thoracic sclerites of insects. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 61:3-54.

Crampton, G. C. 1918. The thoracic sclerites of the grasshopper Dissosteira carolina. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 11:347-366.

Crampton, G. C. 1919. The genitalia and terminal abdominal structures of males, and the terminal structures of the larvae of ‘chalastogastrous’ Hymenoptera. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 21:129-151.

Crampton, G. C. 1926. A Phylogenetic Study of the Thoracic Sclerites of the Psychodoid Diptera, with Remarks on the Interrelationships of the Nematocera. Entomological News (Philadelphia) 2:33-39.

Crampton, G. C. 1938. The interrelationships and lines of descent of living insects. Psyche 45:165-181.

Crosskey, R. W. 1951. The morphology, taxonomy, and biology of the British Evanioidea (Hymenoptera). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 102:247-301.

Crosskey, R. W. 1962. THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE GASTERUPTIIDAE (HYMENOPTERA). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 114:377-402.

Csősz, S., and A. Schulz. 2010. A taxonomic review of the Palaearctic Tetramorium ferox species-complex (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) Zootaxa, 2401: 1-29. Zootaxa 2401:1-29.

Csősz, S., H. Wagner, M. Bozsó, B. Seifert, W. Arthofer, B. Schlick-Steiner, F. Steiner, and Z. Pénzes. 2014. Tetramorium indocile Santschi, 1927 stat rev is the proposed scientific name for Tetramorium sp C sensu Schlick-Steiner et al (2006) based on combined molecular and morphological evidence (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Zoologischer Anzeiger 253:469-481 . Zoologischer Anzeiger 253:469-481.

Csősz, S., J. Heinze, and I. Mikó. 2015. Taxonomic Synopsis of the Ponto-Mediterranean Ants of Temnothorax nylanderi Species-Group. PLoS ONE 10:e0140000.

Curators, H. A. O. 2009. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology Curation Team. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.

Curators. 2010. Gibson, Vilhelmsen, Seltmann, Bertone, Yoder, Miko muscle working group..

Daly, H. 1963. Close-Packed and Fibrillar Muscles of the Hymenoptera. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 56:295-306.

Daly, H. 1964. Skeleto-muscular morphogenesis in the thorax of the Hymenoptera. International Congress of Entomology Proceedings 12:151-151.

Danforth, B. N., and C. D. Michener. 1988. Wing Folding in the Hymenoptera. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 81:342-349.

Dangerfield, P. A., A. Austin, and G. Baker. 2001. Biology, ecology and systematics of Australian Scelio, wasp parasitoids of locust and grasshopper eggs. CSIRO, Collingwood, Victoria.

Darling, D. C. 1988. Comparative morphology of the labrum in Hymenoptera, the digitate labrum of Perilampidae and Eucharitidae. Canadian Journal of Zoology 6612:2811-2835.

Deans, A. R. 2009. HAO curator..

Deans, A. R., H. H. Basibuyuk, D. Azar, and A. Nel. 2004. Descriptions of two new Early Cretaceous (Hauterivian) ensign wasp genera (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae) from Lebanese amber. Cretaceous Research 25: 509-516.

Dessart P (1966) Contribution a l'etude des Hymenopteres Proctotrupoidea. (XI) Revision des Ceraphronidae d'Afrique orientale decrits par l'Abbe Jaen-Jacques Kieffer. Bulletin de l'Institute Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 42(19): 1-30

Dessart P (1978) Four new species of African Ceraphronidae (Hymenoptera). Journal of the Entomological Society of South Africa 41: 275-284

Dessart P (1991) Considerations sur le genre Synarsis Foerster, 1878 (Hym. Ceraphronoidea Ceraphronidae). Bulletin et Annales de la Societe Royale Belge d'Entomologie 127: 385-400.

Dessart P (1992) L’organe Waterston des Ceraphronidea (Hymenoptera Ceraphronoidea). Bulletin et Annales de la Societe Royale Belge d’Entomologie 128: 203-212.

Dessart P (1994b) Hymenoptera Ceraphronoidea nouveaux ou peu connus. Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique Entomologie 64: 49-103.

Dessart P (1995b) Revision de deux Ceraphronoides decrits par A. A. Ogloblin (Hymenoptera). Bulletin et Annales de la Societe Royale Belge d'Entomologie 131: 295-303.

Dessart P (1996) Hymenoptera Ceraphronoidea nouveaux ou peu connus (no 2). Bulletin et Annales de la Societe Royale Belge d'Entomologie 132: 45-62.

Dessart P (2001) Les Megaspilinae ni européens, ni américains 2. Les Dendrocerus RATZEBURG, 1852, à mâles non flabellicornés (Hymenoptera Ceraphronoidea Megaspilidae). Belgian Journal of Entomology 3: 3-124.

Dessart P, Gärdenfors U (1985) Dendrocerus paradoxus n. sp. et D. ulmicola n. sp. (Hym. Ceraphronoidea Megaspilidae), deux nouveaux hyperparasites palearctiques de pucerons. Bulletin et Annales de la Societe Royale Belge d'Entomologie 121: 197-211.

Desvignes, T. 1856. Catalogue of British Ichneumonidae in the collection of the British Museum .London. 120 pp.

Dew, K. 2012. Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.

Dewitz, H. 1875. Über Bau und Entwicklung des Stachels und der Legesheide einiger Hymenopteren und der grünen Heuschrecke. Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Zoologie 25:174-200.

Dhillon, S. 1966. Morphology and Biology of Athalia proxima Klug (Tenthredinidae, Hymenoptera). Aligarh Muslim University Publications (Zoological Series) on Indian Insect Types 7:1-170.

Diller, E. H. 1980. Klärung einiger Taxa der Gattung Sussaba Cameron, 1909 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonide, Diplazontinae). Entomofauna, Zeitschrift für Entomologie 1:58-64.

Dobzhansky, T. 1929. The influence of the quantity and quality of chromosomal material on the size of the cells in Drosophila melanogaster. Development Genes and Evolution 115:363-379.

Dodd, A. P. 1927. Notes on parasitic Hymenoptera from Australia, with descriptions of new species. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 9:63-75.

Dowton, M., R. Belshaw, A. D. Austin, and D. L. J. Quicke. 2002. Simultaneous Molecular and Morphological Analysis of Braconid Relationships (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Indicates Independent mt-tRNA Gene Inversions Within a Single Wasp Family. Journal of Molecular Evolution 54:210-226.

Dufour, L. 1841. Recherches anatomiques et physiologiques sur Orthoptères, les Hyménoptères et les Névroptères. Memoires de l'Académie des Sciences de l'Institut Impérial de France 7:265-647.

Dufour, L. J. M. 1854. Recherches anatomiques sur les Hyménopteres de la famille des Urocérates. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie, Serie 4 1:201-236.

Duncan, C. D. 1939. A contribution to the biology of North American vespine wasps. Stanford University Publications, Biological Sciences 8:1-233.

Eickwort, G. C. 1980. Two European species of Chelostoma established in New York state (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). 87:315-324.

Eickwort. G. C. 1969. A comparative morphological study and generic revision of the augochlorine bees (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Univ. Kans. Sci. BulL Vol. 48: 325-524.

Ekis, G. 1977. Classification, Phylogeny, and Zoogeography of the genus Perilypus (Coleoptera: Cleridae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 227:1-138.

Emery, C. 1900. Intorno al torace delle formiche e particolarmente dei neutri. Bullettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 32:103-119.

Enslin, E. 1912. Die Tenthredinoidea Mitteleuropas. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Berlin, Beihefte 1-7:1-790.

Ernst, A. F. 2009. Curator. Hymenoptera Ontology.

Ernst, A., I. Mikó, and A. R. Deans. 2013. Morphology and function of the ovipositor mechanism in Ceraphronoidea (Hymenoptera: Apocrita). Journal of Hymenoptera Research.

Escherich, K. 1906. Ueber die Biologie der Ameisen. Zoologisches Zentralblatt 13:405-440.

Ettershank, G. 1966. A generic revision of the world Myrmicinae related to Solenopsis and Pheidologeton (Hymenoptera : Formicidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 14:73-171.

Eugene Hall, W. 2000. Family 17: Ptiliidae. Pp. 233-246 in: American Beetles: Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga, Polyphaga: Staphyliniformia. Arnett, R. H., Thomas, M. C. (eds.) CRC Press,Boca Raton. 464 pp.

Evans , H. E. 1972. Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian biological survey of Dominica: aculeate wasps (Hymenoptera: Scolioidea, Vespoidea, Pompiloidea, Sphecoidea). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 115:1-19.

Evans, G. A., and F. D. Bennett. 1996. A new Eretmocerus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) species reared from Dialeurodes Kirkaldyi (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Florida Entomologist 79:579-582.

Evans, H. E. 1950. A taxonomic study of the Nearctic spider wasps belonging to the tribe Pompilini (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) Part I. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 75:133-370.

Evans, H. E. 1963. A revision of the Apenesia in the Americas (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 130:249-359.

Evans, H. E. 1964. A synopsis of the American Bethylidae (Hymenoptera, Aculeata). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 132:1-222.

Evans, H. E. 1987. Chapter 27 Order Hymenoptera. Pp. 597-710 in: Immature Insects, vol. 1 (F. W. Stehr, ed.). Kendal/Hunt,Dubuque, Iowa. 754 pp.

Evans, J. M. 1963. The phylogeny of the Homoptera. Annual Review of Entomology 8:77-94.

FBbt

Fenger, H. 1863. Anatomie und Physiologie des Giftapparates bei den Hymenopteren. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 29:139-178.

Fennah, R. G. 1959. Delphacidae from the Lesser Antilles (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea). Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History, Entomology 8:245-265.

Fisher, B. L., and B. Bolton. 2016. Ants of Africa and Madagascar: A Guide to the Genera. 2:512.

Fisher, B. L., and M. A. Smith. 2008. A revision of Malagasy species of Anochetus Mayr and Odontomachus Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). PLoS ONE 3:e1787.

Forbes, T. 1924. The occurrence of nygmata in the wings of Insecta Holometabola. Entomological News (Philadelphia) 35:230-232.

Ford, F. C., and J. Forbes. 1980. Anatomy of the male reproductive system of the adults and pupae of the doryline ants Dorylus (Anomma) wilvorthi Emery and D (A) nigricans Illiger. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 88:133-142.

Forel, A. 1874. Les fourmis de la Suisse. Soc. Helvetique Sci. Natur. Mem. 26: 452 pp.

Forshage, M. 2009. Systematics of Eucoilini Exploring the diversity of poorly known group of cynipoid parasitic wasps. , , pp.

Forshage, M., and G. Nordlander. 2008. Identification key to European genera of Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae). 39:341-359.

Fox, W. M. J. 1893. Descriptions of new Aculeate Hymenoptera. Psyche 6:553-556.

Franklin, H. J. 1912. The Bombidae of the New World. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 39:73-200.

Frantsevich, L., and S. Gorb. 2004. Structure and mechanics of the tarsal chain in the hornet, Vespa crabro (Hymenoptera: Vespidae): implications on the attachment mechanism. Arthropod Structure & Development 33:77-89.

Friedrich, F., and R. Beutel. 2006. The pterothoracic skeletomuscular system of Scirtoidea (Coleoptera: Polyphaga) and its implications for the high-level phylogeny of beetles. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 44:290-315.

Frontal-Cazalla, F., M. Buffington , G. Nordlander, J. Liljeblad, P. Ros-Farré, J. Nieves-Aldrey, J. Pujade-Villar, and F. Ronquist. 2002. Phylogeny of the Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Figitidae). Cladistics 18:154-199.

Fülöp, D., Z. Pénzes, K. Seltmann, J. Pujade-Villar, J. Paretaz-Martínez, I. Mikó, and G. Melika. 2013. The description of Alloxysta chinensis, a new Charipinae species from China (Hymenoptera, Figitidae). Zootaxa 3637:394-400.

Gadau, J., S. G. Brady, and P. S. Ward. 1999. Systematics, distribution, and ecology of an endemic Californian Camponotus quercicola (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 92:514-522.

Garcia, F. H., P. G. Hawkes, and G. D. Alpert. 2014. Taxonomy of the ant genus Proceratium Roger (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the Afrotropical region with a revision of the P arnoldi clade and description of four new species. ZooKeys 447:47-86.

Gauld, I. D. 1991. Th e Ichneumonidae of Costa Rica, 1 . Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 47:1-589.

Gauld, I. D., and D. B. Wahl. 2010. Genera Ichneumonorum Nearcticae: http://wwwamentinstorg/GIN/..

Gauld, I. D., Bolton, B. (eds.). 1988. The Hymenoptera. Oxford University Press and British Museum (Natural History), Oxford 332 pp.

GAULD, I., and P. MITCHELL. 1976. The ichneumonid genus Pseudanomalon (Hymenoptera). Systematic Entomology 1:117-122.

Georgios, G. 2015. PATO - Phenotypic Quality Ontology.. Global URI not provided.

Gess, F. W. 1998. Priscomasaris namibiensis Gess, a new genus and species of Masarinae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) from Namibia, southern Africa, with a discussion of its position within the subfamily. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 7:296-304.

Gibson , G. A. P., and J. T. Huber. 1987. Chalcid Forum. Chalcid Forum 8:1-21.

Gibson , G. A. P., J. D. Read , and R. Fairchild. 1998. Chalcid wasps (Chalcidoidea): illustrated glossary of positional and morphological terms ..

Gibson, G. 1993. Groundplan structure and homology of the pleuron in Hymenoptera based on a comparison of the skeletomusculature of Xyelidae (Hymenoptera) and Raphidiidae (Neuroptera). Canadian Entomologist 65:165-187.

Gibson, G. A. P. 1985. Some pro- and mesothoracic structures important for phylogenetic analysis of Hymenoptera, with a review of the terms used for the structures. Canadian Entomologist 117:1395-1443.

Gibson, G. A. P. 1986. Evidence for monophyly and relationships of Chalcidoidea, Mymaridae, and Mymarommatidae (Hymenoptera: Terebrantes). Canadian Entomologist 118:205-240.

Gibson, G. A. P. 1986. Mesothoracic skeletomusculature and mechanics of and jumping in Eupelminae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea: Eupelmidae). Canadian Entomologist 118:691-728.

Gibson, G. A. P. 1997. Morphology and terminology. Pp. 16-44 in: Annotated keys to the genera of Neartctic Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Gibson, G. A. P., Huber, J. T., Wooley, J. B. (eds.) NRC Research Press,Ottawa. 794 pp.

Gibson, G. A. P. 2009. Description of three new genera and four new species of Neanastatinae (Hymenoptera, Eupelmidae) from Baltic amber, with discussion of their relationships to extant taxa . ZooKeys 20:175-214.

Gibson, G. A. P., and V. Vikberg. 1998. The species of Asaphes Walker from America north of Mexico, with remarks on extralimital distributions and taxa (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 7:209-256.

Gibson, L. B. 1977. A new genus of Blacinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Pacific Insects 17:241-245.

Gladun, D. V. 2008. Morphology of the pretarsus of the sawflies and horntails (Hymenoptera: 'Symphyta'). Arthropod Structure & Development 37:13-28.

Goldsmith, T. H., and P. R. Ruck. 1958. The spectral sensitivities of the dorsal ocelli of cockroaches and honeybees: an electrophysiological study. The Journal of General Physiology 41:1171-1185.

Gordh, G. 1975. The comparative external morphology and systematics of the neotropical parasitic fig wasp genus Idarnes (Hymenoptera: Torymidae). Kansas University Science Bulletin 50:389-455.

Gordh, G., and A. Harris. 1996. New records and a new species of Eupsenella (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 26:529-536.

Gotwald, W. 1969. Comparative Morphological Studies of the Ants, with Particular Reference to teh Mouthparts (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station Memoir 408.

Goulet, H., and J. T. Huber. 1993. Hymenoptera of the World: An Identification Guide to Families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada Publication 1894/E., Ottawa, ON 668 pp.

Graham, M. W. R. 1969. The Pteromalidae of northwestern Europe (Hym, Chalcidoidea). Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History, Entomology Supplement 16:1-908.

Grandi, G. 1921. Ricerche sul gen Philotrypesis Forst (Hymenoptera - Chalcididae). Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia generale e agraria della Reale Scuola superiore d'agricoltura in Portici 15:33-190.

Grandi, G. 1959. The problems of “morphological adaptation” in insects. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 137:203-230.

Grissel, E. E. 1993. Zdenekius, a new genus of Nearctic Torymidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) . Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 95:264.-270.

Grootaert, P., D. Yang, and L. Zhang. 2003. New species of Hilara (Diptera, Empididae) from Guangdong province in China. Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 73:77-84.

Gullan, P. J., and P. S. Cranston. 2005. The Insects: An Outline of Entomology, 3rd ed. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford 505 pp.

Haendel, M. A., F. Neuhaus, D. Osumi-Sutherland, P. M. Mabee, J. L. V. Mejino, C. J. Mungall, and B. Smith. 2008. CARO - The Common Anatomy Reference Ontology. Pp. 311-333 in: Anatomy Ontologies for Bioinformatics: Principles and Practice; Burger, A, Davidson, D, Baldock, R (Eds.). Springer. 356 pp.

Hansson, C. 2010. Inti (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) a peculiar new genus from tropical America. Zootaxa 2729:58-64.

hao@lists.hymenopterists.org. 2013. [Hao] What's the preferred term?..

Harris, R. 1979. A glossary of surface sculpturing. Occasional Papers in Entomology 28:1-31.

Hartenstein, V. 2006. The muscle pattern of Drosophila. Pp. 8-27 in: Muscle development in Drosophila.. Sink, H. (eds.) . pp.

Hartig, T. 1837. Die Aderflugler Deutschlands mit besonderer Berucksichtigung ihres Larvenzustandes und ihres Wirkens in Waldern und Garten Bd1 Die Familien der Blattwespen und Holzwespen nebst einer allgemainen Einleitung zur Naturgeschichte der Hymenopterten. Haude und Spenersche Buchhandlung. (s.J. Josephy), Berlin 416 pp.

Hartig, T. 1860. Die Familien der Blattwespen und Holzwespen nebst einer allgemeinen Einleitung zur Naturgeschichte der Hymenopteren. Neue Ausgabe, Berlin.

Haupt, H. 1962. The Pompilidae of Israel. Bulletin of the Research Council of Israel (B) 11:3-70.

Hayes, W. P., and C. W. Kearns. 1934. The pretarsus (articularis) in Coleoptera. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 27:21-33.

Hedicke, H., and G. J. Kerrich. 1940. A revision of the family Liopteridae (Hymenopt Cynipoidea). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 90:177-225.

Hensen, R. V. 1987. Revision of the nominate subgenus Chalybion. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 131:13-64.

Heraty, J. M., D. C. Darling, and J. B. Woolley. 1994. Phylogenetic implications of the mesofurca and the mesopostnotum in Hymenoptera. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 3:241-277.

Heraty, J., R. Burks, A. Cruaud, G. Gibson, J. Liljeblad, J. Munro, J. Rasplus, G. Delvare, P. Janšta, A. Gumovsky, J. Huber, J. Woolley, L. Krogmann, S. Heydon, A. Polaszek, S. Schmidt, D. Darling, M. Gates, J. Mottern, E. Murray, A. Dal Molin, S. Triapitsyn, H. Baur, J. Pinto, S. van Noort, J. George, and M. Yoder. 2013. A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Cladistics: the international journal of the Willi Hennig Society.

Hoffman, R. L. 1960. A fourth contribution to the knowledge of Neotropical platyrhacid millipeds (Diplopoda: Polydesmida) . Proceedings of the United States National Museum 111:17-31.

Hopper, K., J. Woolley, K. Hoelmer, K. Wu, G. Qiao, and S. Lee. 2012. An identification key to species in the mali complex of Aphelinus (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) with descriptions of three new species. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 26:73-96.

Howden, H. F. 1980. Gillaspytes janzeni, a new genus and species of North American Dynastinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). The Canadian Entomologist 112:89-92.

Huber, J. 2012. Revision of Ooctonus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) in the Nearctic region . The Canadian Entomologist 143:15-105.

Huber, J. T. 1997. Mymaridae. Pp. 499-530 in: Annotated keys to the genera of Neartctic Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). . Gibson, G. A. P., Huber, J. T., Wooley, J. B. (eds.) NRC Research Press,Ottawa. 794 pp.

Ide, T., N. Wachi, and Y. Abe. 2013. Description of Two New Species of <I>Dryocosmus</I> (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini) Inducing Galls on the Strictly Asian Subgenus <I>Cyclobalanopsis</I> of the Genus <I>Quercus</I>, With a Key to Species of <I>Dryocosmus</I> in East Asia. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 106:18-25.

Isidoro, N., and F. Bin. 1994. Fine structure of the preocellar pit in Trissolcus basalis (Woll) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae). International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology 23:189-196.

Isidoro, N., R. Romani, and F. Bin. 2001. Antennal multiporous sensilla: Their gustatory features for host recognition in female parastic wasps (Insecta, Hymenoptera: Platygastroidea). Microscopy research and technique 55:350-358.

Iuga, V. 1989. La structure de la région gnathale n'éthaye pas le origine sphecoïdienne des apoïdes. Travaux du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle 'Grigore Antipa' 30:41-56.

Janet, C. 1899. Essai sur la constitution morphologique de la tête de l'insecte. G. Carre Et C. Naud., Paris 74 pp.

Jennings, J. T., A. D. Austin, and N. F. Schiff. 2009. The Australian endemic woodwasp genus Austrocyrta Riek (Hymenoptera: Xiphydriidae). Journal of Australian Entomology 48:29-35.

Jennings, J. T., and A. D. Austin. 2002. Systematics and distribution of world hyptiogastrine wasps (Hymenoptera: Gasteruptiidae). Invertebrate Systematics 16:735-811.

Johnson, N. F. 1984. Systematics of Nearctic Telenomus: classification and revisions of the podisi and phymatae species groups (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae). Bull. Ohio Biol. Surv. 6:1-113.

Johnson, N. F. 1991. Revision of Australasian Trissolcus Species (Hymenoptera : Scelionidae). Invertebrate Taxonomy 5:211-239.

Johnson, N. F. 1996. Revision of world species of Paratelenomus (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae). Canadian Entomologist 128:273-291.

Johnson, N. F., and L. Masner. 2006. Revision of World Species of the Genus Nixonia Masner (Hymenoptera: Platygastroidea, Scelionidae) . American Museum Novitates 3518:32.

Johnson, N., and L. Musetti. 2011. Redescription and revision of the Neotropical genus Pseudoheptascelio Szabó (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae, Scelioninae), parasitoids of eggs of short-horned grasshoppers (Orthoptera, Acrididae) . ZooKeys 136:93-112.

Karlsson, D., and F. Ronquist. 2012. Skeletal Morphology of Opius dissitus and Biosteres carbonarius, with a Discussion of Terminology and Morphological Variation in Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). PLoS ONE 7:1-38.

Kasparyan, D. R. 1980. The functional aspect of evolution of the sting in the Hymenoptera. Entomological News (Philadelphia) 59:49-54.

Kasparyan, D. R. 1989. Fauna of the USSR, Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae (Subfamily Tryphoninae) tribe Tryphonini . Indian at Pauls Press, New Delhi 414 pp.

Kasparyan, D. R., and E. Ruiz-Cancino. 2000. First record of the subfamily Oxytorinae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in Mexico, and description of a new species. Anales del Instituto de Biologia Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Serie Zoologia 71:125-131.

Keil, T. 1997. Functional Morphology of Insect Mechanoreceptors. Microscopy research and technique 39:506-531.

Keller, R. 2008. A phylogenetic analysis of ant morphology (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with special reference to the poneromorph subfamilies. , , pp.

Keller, s. 1963. Entomologisches Wörterbuch. Akademie Verlag, 774 pp.

Khalil, A. and M. K. A. Habib. 1969. The head and mouthparts of Vespa orientalis L. Bull Soc. Ent. Egypte. 52: 331-336.

Kieffer, J. J. 1912. Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Evaniidae. Das Tierreich 30: I-XIX + 1-431. Berlin. [in German]

Kieffer, J. J. 1916. Diapriidae. Das Tierreich 44:1-627.

Kieffer, J. J., and T. A. Marshall. 1904. Proctotrypides. in: Species des Hyménoptères d’Europe & d’Algerie. Librairie Scientifique A. Hermann,Paris. 551 pp.

Kimsey , L. S., and R. M. Bohart. 1980. A Synopsis of the Chrysidid Genera of Neotropical America (Chrysidoidea, Hymenoptera). Psyche 87:75-91.

Kimsey, L. S., and R. B. Kimsey. 1981. A New Species of Bembix from the California Desert (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 54:486-488.

King, P., and M. Copeland. 1969. The structure of the female reproductive system in the Mymaridae (Chalcidoidea: Hymenoptera). Journal of Natural History 3:349-365.

Kirby, W., and W. Spencer. 1828. An introduction to Entomology: or elements of the natural history of insects. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown & Green, London 732 pp.

Königsmann, E. 1976. Das phylogenetische System der Hymenoptera Teil 1:Einführung, Grundplanmerkmale, Schwestergruppe und Fossilfunde. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 23:253-279.

Königsmann, E. 1977. Das phylogenetische System der Hymenoptera Teil 2: Symphyta. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 24:1-40.

Kononova, S. V. 2009. New Palaearctic species of the subgenus Telenomus (Hymenoptera, Scelionidae, Telenominae), having the mesoscutum with parapsidal furrows. Entomological Review 89:332-339.

Kononova, S. V., and V. N. Fursov. 2005. New species of egg-parasitoids of the family Scelionidae (Hymenoptera) from Japan. 85:301-313.

Konow (Teschendorf) 1890

Krell, F.-T. 1994. Phylogenetic and taxonomic consideration on the variability of cuticular surface micromorphology within one species, Aphodius (Nialus) varians Duftschmid (Insecta: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 101:265-287.

Krogmann, L., and L. Vilhelmsen. 2006. Phylogenetic implications of the mesosomal skeleton in Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera, Apocrita) - tree searches in a jungle of homoplasy. Invertebrate Systematics 20:615-674.

Krogmann, L., and R. A. Burks. 2009. Doddifoenus wallacei, a new giant parasitoid wasp of the subfamily Leptofoeninae (Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae), with a description of its mesosomal skeletal anatomy and a molecular characterization. Zootaxa 2194:21-36.

Krombein, K. V. 1949. The Aculeate Hymenoptera of Micronesia, I: Scoliidae, Mutillidae, Pompilidae and Sphecidae. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 13:367-410.

Krombein, K. V. 1969. A revision of the Melanesian wasps of the genus Cerceris Latreille (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 22:1-36.

la Ralec, A., J. Rabasse, and E. Wajnberg. 1996. Comparative morphology of the ovipositor of some parasitic Hymenoptera in relation to characteristics of their hosts. The Canadian Entomologist 128:413-433.

Lacaze-Duthiers, H. 1849. Recherches sur l'armure génitale des Insectes. Ann. Sci. nat., 3cme sér. Zool. 12:353-374.

Lanes, G. O., F. T. Gobbi, and C. O. Azevedo. 2004. Report on a Collection of Bethylidae (Hymenoptera) from Central Florida, USA, with Description of a New Species of Lepidosternopsis Ogloblin. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 13:57-63.

Leponce, M., T. Delsinne , Y. Laurent, J. Cillis, I. Bachy, A. Heughebaert, P. Desmet, and N. Youdjou. 2010. RBINS Ant eMuseum Paraguay Collection Glossary. Availble at http://projects.biodiversity.be/ants/.

Leydig, F. 1860. Über Geruchs-, und Gehörorgane der Krebse und Insecten. Archiv für Anatomie und Physiologie und Wissenschaftliche Medicin 1860:265-314.

Liljeblad, J., F. Ronquist, J.-L. Nieves-Aldrey, J. Pujade-Villar, F. Fontal-Cazalla, P. Ros-Farre, and D. Gaitros . 2008. A fully web-illustrated morphological phylogenetic study of relationships among oak gall wasps and their closest relatives (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Zootaxa 1796:1-73.

Linsley, E. G., and C. D. Michener. 1939. A generic revision of the North American Nomadidae (Hymenoptera). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 65:265-305.

Lubbock, J. 1881. On the anatomy of ants. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 2:141-154.

Macalister, A. 1876. An introduction to animal morphology and systematic zoology: part I – Invertebrata.:461.

MacGillivray, A. D. 1923. External Insect Anatomy. The Scarab Company, Urbana Ilinois.

MacLeay, W. 1830. Explanation of the comparative anatomy of the thorax in winged insects, with a review of the present state of the nomenclature of its parts. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 5:145-179.

Maggenti, A. R., and S. L. Gardner. 2005. Online dictionary of Invertebrate Zoology: Complete Work.Lincoln. 963 pp.

Malone, J., and M. McGee. 2015. Ontology for biomedical investigations.. Global URI not provided.

Marlatt, C. L. 1896. Revision of the Nematinae of North America, a subfamily of leaf-feeding Hymenoptera of the family Tenthredinidae. Government Printing Office, Washington 135 pp.

Marsh, P. 1993. Descriptions of new western hemsiphere genera of the subfamily Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). 28:1-58.

Masner, L. 1958. A new genus of Proctotrupidae from Japan (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea) . Beiträge zur Entomologie 8:477-481.

Masner, L. 1979. Pleural morphology in scelionid wasps (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) - An aid to higher classification. Canadian Entomologist 111:1079-1087.

Masner, L. 1980. Key to genera of Scelionidae of the Holarctic region, with descriptions of new genera and species (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea). Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 113:1-54.

Masner, L. 1983. A revision of Gryon Haliday in North America (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea: Scelionidae). The Canadian Entomologist 115:123-174.

Masner, L., and J. L. García. 2002. The genera of Diapriinae (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) in the new world. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 268:107-138.

Masner, L., and L. Huggert. 1989. World review and keys to genera of the subfamily Inostemmatinae with reassignment of the taxa to the Platygastrinae and Sceliotrachelinae (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae). Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 147:1-124.

Mason, W. 1984. STRUCTURE AND MOVEMENT OF THE ABDOMEN OF FEMALE PELECINUS POLYTURATOR (HYMENOPTERA: PELECINIDAE). The Canadian Entomologist 116:419-426.

Mason, W. R. M. 1986. Standard drawing conventions and definitions for venational and other features of wings of Hymenoptera. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 88:1-7.

Mason, W. R. M. 1991. A new genus of exodont Ichneutinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Insecta Mundi 5:95-99.

Matsuda, R. 1957. Morphology of the head of a sawfly, Macrophya pluricincta Norton (Hymenoptera Tenthredinidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 30:99-107.

Matsuda, R. 1970. Morphology and evolution of the insect thorax. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 76:1-431.

Maus, V. 1996. Morphological characters of Ceramius palaestinensis (Giordani Soika 1957) GUSENLEITNER 1992 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Masarinae) and considerations about its phylogenetic position. Linzer Biologische Beitraege 28:953-966.

Mayr, G. 1887. Südamerikanische Formiciden . Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologische-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 37:511-632.

Mayr. 1861. Die europäischen Formiciden Nach der analytischen Methode bearbeitet. C. Gerolds Sohn, Wien 80 pp.

Mc Iver, S. B. 1975. STRUCTURE OF CUTICULAR MECHANORECEPTORS OF ARTHROPODS. Annual Review of Entomology 20:381-397.

McGinley, R. 1980. Glossal Morphology of the Colletidae and Recognition of the Stenotritidae at the Family Level (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 53:539-552.

McLellan, I. D. 1967. New gripopterygids (Plecoptera) of New Zealand. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand, Zoology 9:1-15.

Melika, G., and G. L. Prinsloo. 2007. Phanacis neserorum sp n (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Aylacini): first record of a phytophagous Afrotropical cynipoid gall wasp. African Entomology 15:185-191.

Melo, G. A. R. 1997. Silk glands in adult sphecid wasps (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae, Pemphredoninae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 6:01-09.

Michener, C. D. 1944. A comparative study of the appendages of the eighth and ninth abdominal segments of insects. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 37:336-351.

Michener, C. D. 1944. Comparative external morphology, phylogeny, and a classification of the bees (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 82:151-326.

Michener, C. D. 1956. Hymenoptera. in: Taxonomist’s Glossary of Genitalia in Insects. Tuxen, S. L. (eds.) Munksgaard,Copenhagen. pp.

Michener, C. D. 1965. A classification of the bees of the Australian and South Pacific regions. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 130:1-362.

Michener, C. D. 2000. The Bees of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA 913 pp.

Michener. 1984. A comparative study of the mentum and lorum of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 57:705-714.

Miko, I. 2009. -2014 Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.

Mikó, I., and A. R. Deans. 2009. Masner, a new genus of Ceraphronidae (Hymenoptera, Ceraphronoidea) described using controlled vocabularies. ZooKeys 20:127-153.

Mikó, I., C. Trietsch, M. Yoder, and A. R. Deans. 0. Synopsis of Malagasy Conostigmus Dahlbom 1858. ZooKeys.

Mikó, I., C. Trietsch, T. van de Kamp, L. Masner, A. Deans, and M. Yoder. 0. Trassedia, an enigmatic ceraphronid genus with disjunct distribution (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronoidea: Ceraphronidae)..

Mikó, I., L. Masner, and A. R. Deans. 2010. World revision of Xenomerus Walker (Hymenoptera: Platygastroidea, Platygastridae). Zootaxa 2708:1-73.

Míko, I., L. Vilhelmsen, and G. Gibson. 2010. HAO Muscle Compendium..

Mikó, I., L. Vilhelmsen, N. F. Johnson, L. Masner , and Z. Pénzes. 2007. Morphology of Scelionidae (Hymenoptera: Platygastroidea): head and mesosoma. Zootaxa 1571:1-78.

Miko, I., M. Bertone, M. Yoder, A. Deans, S. Katja, N. Johnson, S. Brady, P. Ward, F. Ronquist, E. Talamas, L. Krogmann, L. Vilhelmsen, C. Rasmussen, G. Broad, A. Lucky, and B. G. 2010. HAO/Biosync working meeting II..

Mikó, I., M. J. Yoder, E. Johannes, and A. R. Deans. 2012. Male terminalia of Ceraphronoidea: diversity in a monotonous system. Insect Systematics and Evolution in prep.

Mikó, I., M. Yoder, and A. Deans. 2011. Order Hymenoptera, family Megaspilidae Genus Dendrocerus. Pp. 353-374 in: Arthropod fauna of the UAE IV. . pp.

Mikó, I., R. Copeland, M. J. Yoder, J. Balhoff, and A. R. Deans. 0. Folding wings like a cockroach: a review of transverse wing folding ensign wasps (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae: Afrevania and Trissevania)..

Milena Arias-Penna, T., L. Masner, and T. Delsinne. 2012. REVISION OF THE NEOTROPICAL SPECIES OF TRICHACIS FOERSTER (HYMENOPTERA: PLATYGASTROIDEA: PLATYGASTRIDAE), WITH DESCRIPTION OF 24 NEW SPECIES. Zootaxa in press.

Mineo, G., and V. Caleca. 1992. New Characters in Gryonini (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae). Phytophaga 4:11-16.

Morel, and Morel. 2007. Oviposition Process of Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Queens. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 100:758-762.

Morice, F. D. 1912. The terebrae of the Chalastogastra. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of London [use ser#537].

Morin, H., M. Gates, and I. Mikó. 0. A new species of genus Ormocerus Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) from North America and a range expansion for Ormocerus latus Walker . Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington.

Morison, G. 1927. The muscles of the Adult Honey-Bee (Apis Mellifera L). Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science 71:395-463.

Morley, C. 1903. Theichneumons of Great Britain: a descriptive account of the families, genera and species indigenous to the British islands, together with notes as to classification, localities, habitats, host, etc.Plymouth. 315 pp.

Mullins, P. 2011. Curator of the HAO..

Mungall, C. 2012. Spatial Ontology. Availble at http://www.obofoundry.org/cgi-bin/detail.cgi?id=spatial.

Murakami, A. S. N., S. N. Shima, and I. C. Desuó. 2009. More than one inseminated female in colonies of the independent-founding wasp Mischocyttarus cassununga von Ihering (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 53:653-662.

Nachtigall, W., A. Wisser, and D. Eisinger. 1998. Flight of the honey bee VIII Functional elements and mechanics of the "Fight motor'' and the wing joint - one of the most complicated gear-mechanisms in the animal kingdom. Journal of Comparative Physiology 168:323-344.

Naumann, I. D. 1991. REVISION OF THE AUSTRALIAN GENUS ENOGGERA GIRAULT (HYMENOPTERA: PTEROMALIDAE: ASAPHINAE) . Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 30:1-17.

Newport, G. 1838. Observations on the anatomy, habits and economy of Athalia centifoliae. Ent. Soc. Lond.:1-32.

Nichols, S. W. (eds.). 1989. The Torre-Bueno Glossary of Entomology. New York Entomological Society and the American Museum of Natural History, New York.

Nielson, M. W. 1989. Two new genera and two new species Ofteruliine leafhoppers (Homoptera: Cicadellidae: Coelidiinae). Great Basin Naturalist 49:96-99.

Nordlander, G. 1978. Revision of the genus Rhoptromeris Förster, 1869 with reference to north-western European species. 9:47-62.

Nordlander, G. 1981. A review of the genus Trybliographa, Förster 1869. Entomologica Scandinavica 12:381-402.

Noyes, J. S., and M. Hayat. 1984. A review of the genera of Indo-Pacific Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Zoology 48:131-395.

Oeser, R. 1961. Vergleichend-morphologische Untersuchungen über den Ovipositor der Hymenopteren. Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 37:3-119.

Ogloblin , A. 1960. La estructura cefálica de los representantes de la familia Mymaridae (Hymenoptera) . Actas y Trabajos del Congreso Sudamericano de Zoologia, La Plata 3:109-115.

Ohl, M., and P. Spahn. 2010. A cladistic analysis of the cockroach wasps based on morphological data (Hymenoptera: Ampulicidae). Cladistics: the international journal of the Willi Hennig Society 26:49-61.

Ohl, M., C. Rasmussen, and I. Mikó. 2010. HAO working group..

Olmi, M. 1994. The Dryinidae and Embolemidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. 30:100.

Onagbola, E. O., and H. Y. Fadamiro. 2008. Scanning electron microscopy studies of antennal sensilla of Pteromalus cerealellae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). 39:526-535.

Osten, T. 1982. Vergleichend-funktionsmorphologische Untersuchungen der Kopfkapsel und der Mundwerkzeuge ausgewahlter >Scolioidea< (Hymenoptera, Aculeata). Stuttgarter Beitr. Naturk. ser. A. (BioI.) 354: 1-60.

Paretas-Martínez, J., M. A. Arnedo, G. Melika, J. Selfa, M. V. Seco-Fernández, D. Fülöp, and J. Pujade-Villar. 2007. Phylogeny of the parasitic wasp subfamily Charipinae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae). Zoologica Scripta 36:153-172.

Peck, O. 1937. The male genitalia in the Hymenoptera (Insecta), especially the family Ichneumonidae. Canadian Journal of Research, Section D, Zoological Sciences 15:221-274.

Perrichot, V., B. J. Ortega, R. C. McKellar, X. Delclòs, D. Azar, A. Nel, P. Tafforeau, and M. S. Engel. 2011. New and revised maimetshid wasps from Cretaceous ambers (Hymenoptera, Maimetshidae). ZooKeys 130:421-453.

Pesenko, Y. A., and A. Pauly. 2005. Monograph of the bees of the subfamily Nomioidinae (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) of Africa (excluding Madagascar). Annales de la Societe d'entomologique de France 41:129-236.

Peterson, A. 1948. Larvae of Insects, an Introduction to Nearctic Species Part I Lepidoptera and Plant Infesting Hymenoptera. Edwards Brothers, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI, USA 315 pp.

Plant, J. D., and H. F. Paulus. 1987. Comparative morphology of the postmentum of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) with special remarks on the evolution of the lorum. Zeitschrift für Zoologische Systematic Evolutionsforschung 25:81-103.

Polidori, C., and J. Nieves-Aldrey. 2014. Diverse filters to sense: great variability of antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera) with special focus on Gall-Wasps (Cynipidae). PLoS ONE 9:e101843. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0101843.

Popovici, O. A., I. Mikó, K. Seltmann, and A. R. Deans. 2012. The maxillo-labial complex in Sparasion (Platygastroidea: Platygastridae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research in prep.

Popovici, O. A., L. B. Vilhelmsen, L. Masner, I. Mikó, and N. F. Johnson. 0. Maxillo-labial complex in scelionids (Hymenoptera: Platygastroidea): morphology and phylogenetic implications..

Porter, C. C. 1977. Ecology, Zoogeography and Taxonomy of the Lower Rio Grande Valley Mesostenines (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Psyche 84:28-91.

Prentice, M. A. 1998. The comparative morphology and phylogeny of Apoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) Thesis (Ph D in Entomology)--University of California, Berkeley..

Prentice, M. A., G. O. Poinar, and R. Milki. 1996. Fossil Scolebythids (Hymenoptera: Scolebythidae) from Lebanese and Dominican amber. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98:802-811.

Priesner, H. 1966. Zur Kenntnis der Gattung Episyron (Hymenoptera, Pompilidae) . Bollettino dell'Istituto di Entomologia della Universita Degli Studi di Bologna 28:29-55.

Pringle, J. 1957. Insect Flight. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 133 pp.

Quicke, D. L. J., N. M. Laurenne, M. G. Fitton, and G. R. Broad. 2009. A thousand and one wasps: a 28S rDNA and morphological phylogeny of the Ichneumonidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) with an investigation into alignment parameter space and elision. Journal of Natural History 43:1305-1421 .

Quicke, D., M. Fitton, and J. Harris. 1995. Ovipositor steering mechanisms in braconid wasps. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 4:110-120.

Quicke, D., M. Fitton, J. Tunstead, S. Ingram, and P. Gaitens. 1994. Ovipositor structure and relationships within the Hymenoptera, with special reference to the Ichneumonoidea. Journal of Natural History 28:635-682.

Rasnitsyn, A. 1969. Origin and evolution of Lower Hymenoptera. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta. Akademia nauk SSSR. 123:1-196.

Rasnitsyn, A. 1975. Higher Hymenoptera of the Mesozoic. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta. Akademia nauk SSSR. 147:1-130.

Rasnitsyn, A. 1980. Origin and evolution of Hymenoptera. Akademiia nauk SSSR. Trudy Paleozoologicheskogo [later Paleontologicheskii] Instituta 174:1-190.

Rasnitsyn, A. 1988. An outline of evolution of the Hymenopterous insects (Order Vespida). Oriental Insects 22:115-145.

ref incomplete

ref incomplete

ref incomplete

Reid, J. A. 1940. The thorax of the wingless and the short-winged Hymenoptera. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 91:367-446.

Richards, G. A., and P. A. Richards. 1979. The cuticular protuberances of insects. International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology 8:143-157.

Richards, O. 1956. An interpretation of the ventral region of the hymenopterous thorax. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London, Series A [use ser#537 "(A)"] 31:99-104.

Richards, O. W. 1939. The British Bethylidae (sl) (Hymenoptera). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 89:185-344.

Richards, O. W. 1956. Hymenoptera: Introduction and Keys to Familes Identification of Brittish Insects Volume 6. The Royal Entomological Society of London (RES), London 94 pp.

Richards, O. W. 1977. Hymenoptera Introduction and Key to Families (2nd ed). Handbooks for the identification of British Insects 6.

Ritchie, A. J., and T. M. Peters. 1981. The external morphology of Diplolepis rosae (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipinae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 74:191-199.

Rivard, I. 1955. Contribution to the morphology of the pine web-spinning sawfly, Cephalcia marginata Middlekauff. The Canadian Entomologist 87:382-399.

Rohwer, S. 1910. JAPANESE SAWFLIES IN THE COLLECTION OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 39:99-120.

Rohwer, S. A. 1912. Descriptions of new species of wasps in the collections of the United States National Museum . Proceedings of the United States National Museum 41:447-478.

Rohwer, S. A. 1917. Two bethylid parasites of the pink bollworm (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae). Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus 5:1-3.

Rohwer, S. A., and A. B. Gahan. 1916. Horismology of the hymenopterous wing. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 19:89-98.

Romani, R., N. Isidoro, and F. Bin. 2010. Antennal structures used in communication by egg parasitoids. Pp. 57-96 . pp.

Ronquist, F. 1994. Evolution of parasitism among closely related species: phylogenetic relationships and the origin of inquilinism in gall wasps (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) . Evolution 48241-266.

Ronquist, F. 1995. Phylogeny and classification of the Liopteridae, an archaic group of cynipoid wasps (Hymenoptera). Entomologica Scandinavica 46:1-74.

Ronquist, F., and G. Nordlander. 1989. Skeletal morphology of an archaic cynipoid, Ibalia rufipes (Hymenoptera: Ibaliidae). Entomologica Scandinavica, Supplement 33:1-60.

Ros-Farré, P. 2000. Redescription of Acanthaegilips Ashmead, 1897, with characterization of the Anacharitinae and Aspiceratinae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Figitidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 129:467-488.

Ross, H. H. 1936. THE ANCESTRY AND WING VENATION OF THE HYMENOPTERA. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 29:99-111.

Ross, H. H. 1937. A generic classification of the nearctic sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta). Illinois Biological Monographs 15:1-173.

Ross, H. H. 1945. Sawfly genitalia: terminology and study techniques. Entomological News (Philadelphia) 56:261-265.

Roth, L. M., and E. R. Willis. 1954. Anastatus Floridanus (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) a New Parasite on the Eggs of the Cockroach Eurycotis floridana . Transactions of the American Entomological Society 80:29-41.

Rozen, J. G. 1987. Nesting biology and immature stages of a new species in the bee genus Hesperapis (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Melittidae, Dasypodinae). American Museum Novitates 2887:1-13.

Rusina, L. Y., and E. S. Orlova. 2011. The relationship between phenotypic variability in future foundresses of Polistes nimpha (Christ) (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae) and infestation of their larvae by the mite Sphexicozela connivens Mahunka (Acari, Astigmata, Winterschmidtiidae). Entomological Review 91:685-691.

Saini, M., S. Dhillon, and R. Aggarwal. 1982. Skeletomuscular differences in the thorax of winged and non-winged forms of Camponotus camelinus (Smith) (Hym, Formicidae). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 29:447-458.

Sakagami, S. F. 1961. Nomia umesaoi sp nov, an aberrant bee from Thailand (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). Insecta Matsumurana 24:43-51.

Salman, K. 1929. The external morphology of Pepsis elegans Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Psammocharidae). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 55:119-153.

Santos, H. S. 2002. Species of Anisepyris Kieffer, 1905 (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae) collected in Cachoeira da Fumaça and Forno Grande State Parks, Espírito Santo, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 4:243-249.

Santos, H. S., and C. O. Azevedo. 2000. Sistemática das espécies de Anisepyris Kieffer, 1905 (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae) do Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 44:129-165.

Schedl, K. E. 1931. Morphology of the bark-beetles of the genus Gnathotrichus Eichh. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 82:1-88.

Schedl, W. 1991. Hymenoptera, Unterordnung Symphyta Handbuch der Zoologie (4). Walter de Gruyter, Berlin.

Schenck, A. 1861. Beschreibung nassauischer Bienenarten. Jahrbücher des Nassauischen Vereins für Naturkunde 7:1-106.

Schlick-Steiner, B., F. Steiner, H. Konrad, B. Markó, S. Csõsz, G. Heller, B. Ferencz, B. Sipos, E. Christian, and C. Stauffer. 2006. More than one species of Messor harvester ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Central Europe 103: 469-476 . European Journal of Entomology 103:469-476.

Schmidt, J. 1983. Hymenopteran envenomation. in: Frankie, Gordon W., and Carlton S. Koehler. Urban entomology, interdisciplinary perspectives.. Praeger Publishers. pp.

Schmiedeknecht, O. H. L. 1882. Apidae Europaeae (Die Bienen Europa's) Tomus 1 Nomada, Bombus, Psithyrus et Adrena . Gumperdae te Berolini, Berlin.

Schönitzer, K., and G. Lawitzky. 1987. A phylogenetic study of the antenna cleaner in Formicidae, Mutillidae, and Tiphiidae (Insecta, Hymenoptera). Zoomorphology [was Zeitschrift für Morphologie der Tiere] 107:273-285.

Schönitzer, K., and M. Renner. 1984. The function of the antenna cleaner of the honeybee (Apis mellifica). Apidologie 15:23-32.

Schulmeister, S. 2001. Male genitalia and copulation in Hymenoptera. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 82:331-349.

Schulmeister, S. 2003. Genitalia and terminal abdominal segments of male basal Hymenoptera (Insecta): morphology and evolution. Organisms diversity and evolution 3:253-279.

Schulmeister, S. 2003. Morphology and evolution of the tarsal plantulae in Hymenoptera (Insecta), focusing on the basal lineages. Zoologica Scripta 32:153-172.

Scobiola, X. 1963. Sur quelques Pompiloides, nouveaux ou râres, de la RP Roumaine: 11e nôte. Travaux du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle "Grigore Antipa" 4:269-281.

Seifert, B. 2006. Temnothorax saxonicus (Seifert, 1995) statn, combn – a parapatric, closely-related species of T sordidulus (Müller, 1923) combn and description of two new closely-related species, T schoedli spn and T artvinense spn, from Turkey (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) . 8:1-12.

Seltmann, K. 2010. Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.

Serna, F., and W. Mackay. 2010. A descriptive morphology of the ant genus Procryptocerus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Insect Science 10:1-36.

Seurat, L. G. 1898. Observations sur les organes génitaux des Braconides. Annales des sciences naturelles zoologie et paleontologie 7:293-303.

Sharkey, M. J. 1985. Notes on the genera Bassus Fabricius and Agathis Latreille, with a description of Bassus arthurellus n sp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) . The Canadian Entomologist 117:1497-1502.

Sharkey, M. J. 1997. Subfamily Ichneutinae. Pp. 304-310 in: Manual of the New World genera of the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera). Wharton, R. A., Marsh, P. M., Sharkey, M. J. (eds.) . pp.

Sharkey, M. J., and D. B. Wahl. 1992. Cladisitics of the Ichneumonoidea (Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 1:15-24.

Sharkey, M. J., Carpenter, J. M., Vilhelmsen, L., Heraty, J., Liljeblad, J., Dowling, A. P., Schulmeister, S., Murray, D., Deans, A. R., Ronquist, F., Krogmann, L. and Wheeler, W. C. (2011), Phylogenetic relationships among superfamilies of Hymenoptera. Cladistics. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2011.00366.x

Sharkey, M.J. and R.A. Wharton 1997. Morphology and terminology. Pages 19-38. In: Wharton, R.A., P.M. Marsh, and M.J. Sharkey (Eds), Manual of the New World genera of Braconidae (Hymenoptera). Special Publication of the International Society of Hymenopterists. Vol. 1: 1-439 pp.

Sharplin, J. 1963. Wing base structure in Lepidoptera I Fore wing base. The Canadian Entomologist 95:1024-1050.

Shcherbakov, D. E. 1981. [Morphology of the pterothoracic pleura of Hymenoptera 2 Modification of the Groundplan]. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 60:205-213.

Shuckard, W. E. 1836. A Manual of entomology tr from the German of Dr Herman Burmeister by W E Shuckard, with additions by the author, and original notes and plates by the translator. E. Churchton, London 654 pp.

Sink, H. 2005. An introduction to muscle development in Drosophila. in: Muscle development in Drosophila.. Sink, H. (eds.) Springer,Birkhäuser. pp.

Smetana, A., and A. Davies. 2000. Reclassification of the North Temperate Taxa Associated with Staphylinus Sensu Lato, Including Comments on Relevant Subtribes of Staphylinini (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). American Museum Novitates 3287:1-88.

Smith, C. W., R. Herbert, R. J. Wooton, and K. E. Evans. 2000. The hind wing of the desert locust (Shistocera gregaria Forksal) II Mechanical properties and functioning of the membrane. Journal of Experimental Biology 203:2933-2943.

Smith, D. R. 1969. Nearctic sawflies I Blennocampinae: Adults and larvae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). United States Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 1397:1-179.

Smith, D. R., and P. Tripotin. 2012. Trigonalidae (Hymenoptera) of Madagascar. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 24:1-25.

Smith, E. 1972. Biosystematics and morphology of Symphyta-III external genitalia of Euura (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae): sclerites, sensilla, musculature, development and oviposition behavior. International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology 1:321-365.

Smith, E. L. 1969. Evolutionary morphology of external insect genitalia 1 Origin and relationships to other appendages. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 62:1051-1079.

Smith, E. L. 1970. Evolutionary morphology of external insect genitalia 2 Hymenoptera. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 63:1-27.

Smith, E. L. 1970. Hymnoptera. Pp. 156-170 in: Taxonomist's Glossary of Genitalia in Insects 2nd enlarged Edition. Tuxen, S. L. (eds.) Munksgaard,Copenhagen. 359 pp.

Smith, J. B. 1906. Explanation of terms used in Entomology. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society:154.

Smith, L., and R. D. Shenefelt. 1956. A guide to the subfamily and tribes of the family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) known to occur in Wisconsin. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters 44:165-219.

Snodgrass, R. 1909. The thorax of insects and the articulation of the wings . Proceedings of the United States National Museum 36:511-595.

Snodgrass, R. 1910. The anatomy of the honey bee. Technical series / Bureau of Entomology United States Department of Agriculture 18:1-162.

Snodgrass, R. 1910. The thorax of the Hymenoptera. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 39:37-91.

Snodgrass, R. 1927. Morphology and mechanism of the insect thorax. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 80:1-108.

Snodgrass, R. 1960. Facts and Theories on the Insect Head Part 2. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 142.

Snodgrass, R. E. 1908. A Comparative study of the thorax in the Orthoptera, Euplexoptera and Coleoptera. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 9:95-110.

Snodgrass, R. E. 1929. The thoracic mechanism of a Grasshopper and its antecedents. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 82:1-111.

Snodgrass, R. E. 1935. Principles of insect morphology. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York & London 667 pp.

Snodgrass, R. E. 1937. The male genitalia of orthopteroid insects. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 96:1-107.

Snodgrass, R. E. 1941. The male genitalia of Hymenoptera. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 99:1-86.

Snodgrass, R. E. 1942. The skeleto-muscular mechanisms of the honey bee. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 103:1-120.

Snodgrass, R. E. 1956. Anatomy of the Honey Bee. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca 334 pp.

Snodgrass, R. E. 1957. A revised interpretation of the external reproductive organs of male insects. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 135:1-60.

Sollmann, A. 1863. Der Bienenstachel. Z. wiss. Zool. 13:528-540.

Sorger , D., and H. Zettel. 2011. On the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Philippine Islands: V The genus Odontomachus Latreille, 1804. Myrmecological News 14:141-163.

Staig, R. A. 1940. The Fabrician types of insects in the Hunterian collection at Glasgow University Coleoptera Part II . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 164 pp.

Steiner, S. M., C. Kropfa, W. Graber, W. Netwig, and S. Klopfstein. 2010. Antennal courtship and functional morphology of tyloids in the parasitoid wasp Syrphoctonus tarsatorius (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Diplazontinae) . Arthropod Structure & Development 39:33-40.

Stephen, W. P., G. E. Bohart, and P. F. Torchio. 1969. The Biology and external Morphology of Bees: with a synopsis of the genera of Northwestern America.:140.

Stoelb, S. A., and M. J. Sharkey. 2012. Revision of Therophilus ss (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Agathidinae) from Thailand. Zootaxa 27:1-36.

Sudheer, K., and T. C. Narendran. 2006. A Review of the species of Genus Isotima Foerster (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) from Kerala along with the description of two new species. Zoos' Print Journal 21:2143-2151.

Swaine , J. M. 1918. Canadian bark-beetles: a preliminary classification, with an account of the habits and means of contro. 2:141.

Szépligeti, G. 1899. Adatok a magyarországi fürkészö darazsak ismeretéhez. Természetrajzi Füzetek 22.

Szépligeti, G. 1903. Neue Evaniiden. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici:3783-388.

Talamas, E. 2014. Key to Nearctic Trissolcus..

Talamas, E. 2014. Updates to the nomenclature of Platygastroidea. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 39:99-117.

Talamas, E. J. 2011. Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.

Talamas, E. J. 2015. Fossils of Platygastroidea in the USNM..

Talamas, E. J. 2015. Revision of Palearctic Trissolcus. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington.

Talamas, E. J., L. Masner, and N. F. Johnson. 2011. Revision of the Malagasy genus Trichoteleia Kieffer (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae). ZooKeys 80:1-126.

Talamas, E. J., L. Masner, and N. F. Johnson. 2011. Revision of the Paridris nephta species group. ZooKeys.

Talamas, E. J., N. F. Johnson, S. van Noort, L. Masner, and A. Polaszek. 2009. Revision of world species of the genus Oreiscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastroidea, Platygastridae). ZooKeys 6:1-68.

Talamas, E., M. István, and C. S. Robert. 2016. Revision of Dvivarnus (Scelionidae:Teleasinae)..

Talamas, E., N. F. Johnson, M. Buffington, and R. Dong. 2016. Two species of Cretaceous Platygastroidea (Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research.

Taylor, L. H. 1918. The thoracic sclerites of Hemiptera and Heteroptera: with notes on the relationships indicates. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 11:225-250.

Thomson, C. G. 1872. Hymenoptera Scandinaviae Volume 2. H. Ohlsson, 280 pp.

Thomson, C. G. 1873. Försök till gruppering och beskrifning af Crypti. Opuscula Entomologica 5:455-527.

Thomson, C. G. 1876. Hymenoptera Scandinaviae Part 4 Pteromalus., 309 pp.

Thorp, R. W., D. S. Horning, and L. L. Dunning. 1983. Bumble bees and cuckoo bumble bees of California (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Bulletin of the California Insect Survey 23:1-79.

Townes, H. 1957. Nearctic wasps of the subfamilies Pepsinae and Ceropalinae. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 209:1-286.

Townes, H. 1970. The genera of Ichneumonidae, Part 3. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 13:1-307.

Townes, H. K. 1939. Nearctic species of Netelia (Paniscus of authors) and a revision of genera of Neteliini (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Lloydia 1:168-231.

Townes, H. K. 1969. The genera of Ichneumonidae Part 1. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 11:1-300.

Townes, H., and V. K. Gupta. 1962. Ichneumon-flies of America North of Mexico: 4 subfamily Gelinae, tribe Hemigasterini. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 2:1-305.

Trietsch, C., and I. Miko. 2015. Conostigmus albovarius redescription. in prep.

Tshistjakov, Y. A. 2008. A Review of the Subfamily Nolinae (Lepidoptera, Nolidae) Of The Russian Far East. Far Eastern Entomologist 185:1-19.

Tulloch, G. 1929. The proper use of the terms parapsides and parapsidal furrows . Psyche 36:376-382.

Tulloch, G. 1935. Morphological studies of the thorax of the ant. Entomologica Americana 15:93-130.

Turner, R. E. 1917. New species of Hymenoptera in the British Museum. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 65:53-84.

Turner, R. E., and J. Waterson. 1917. Notes on the hymenopterous families Bethylidae and Rhopalosomidae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 20:101-108.

Tweedie, S., M. Ashburner, K. Falls, P. Leyland, P. McQuilton, S. Marygold, G. Millburn, D. Osumi-Sutherland, A. Schroeder, R. Seal, H. Zhang, and The FlyBase Consortium. 2009. FlyBase: enhancing Drosophila Gene Ontology annotations. Nucleic Acids Research 37:D555-D559.

Ulrich, W. 1924. Die Mundwerkzeuge der Spheciden (Hym, Foss) . Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere 1:539-636.

Valerio, A. A., J. B. Whitfield, and D. H. Janzen. 2009. Review of world Parapanteles Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae), with description of fourteen new Neotropical species and the first description of the final instar larvae . Zootaxa 2084:1-49.

van Achterberg, C. 1993. Illustrated key to the subfamilies of the Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) 283: 1–189. Zoologische Verhandelingen (Leiden) 283:1-189.

van Achterberg, C. 1997. Subfamily Aphidiinae. Pp. 119-143 in: Manual of the New World genera of the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera). Wharton, R. A. (eds.) . pp.

van Achterberg, C., and M. R. Shaw. 2008. A new subgenus of the genus Colastes Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Exothecinae) for species reared from bracket fungi, with description of two new species from Europe. Journal of Natural History 42:1849-1860.

van Noort, S. 2013. Echthrodesis ..

van Noort, S., and N. F. Johnson. 2009. New species of the plesiomorphic genus Nixonia Masner (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae, Scelioninae) from South Africa. ZooKeys 20:31-51.

Verhoeff, C. 1893. Finden sich für die laminae basales der männlichen Coleopteren Homologa bei den Hymenopteren? 16: 407-412 . Zoologischer Anzeiger 16:407-412.

Vilhelmsen, L. 1996. The preoral cavity of lower Hymenoptera (Insecta): comparative morphology and phylogenetic significance. Zoologica Scripta 25:143-170.

Vilhelmsen, L. 1997. Head capsule concavities accomodating the antennal bases in Hymenoptera pupating in wood: possible emergence-facilitating adaptations. International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology 26:129-138.

Vilhelmsen, L. 2001. Phylogeny and classification of the extant basal lineages of the Hymenoptera. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society [=Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology] 131:303-442.

Vilhelmsen, L. 2003. Phylogeny and classification of the Orussidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera), a basal parasitic wasp taxon. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 139:337-418.

Vilhelmsen, L. 2010. Curator..

Vilhelmsen, L. 2011. Head capsule characters in the Hymenoptera and their phylogenetic implications. ZooKeys 130:343-361.

Vilhelmsen, L. B. 1999. The occipital region in the basal Hymenoptera (Insecta): a reappraisal. Zoologica Scripta 28:75-85.

Vilhelmsen, L. B. 2000. Before the wasp-waist: Comparative anatomy and phylogenetic implications of the skeleto-musculature of the thoraco-abdominal boundary region in basal Hymenoptera (Insecta) . Zoomorphology [was Zeitschrift für Morphologie der Tiere] 119:185-221.

Vilhelmsen, L. B. 2000. Cervical and prothoracic skeleto-musculature in the basal Hymenoptera (Insecta): Comparative anatomy and phylogenetic implications. Zoologischer Anzeiger 239:105-138.

Vilhelmsen, L. B. 2000. The ovipositor apparatus of basal Hymenoptera (Insecta): phylogenetic implications and functional morphology. Zoologica Scripta 29:319-345.

Vilhelmsen, L. B., and I. Miko. 2010. HAO/ovipositor..

Vilhelmsen, L. B., I. Miko, and L. Krogmann. 2010. Beyond the wasp waist: structural diversity and phylogenetic significance of the mesosoma in apocritan wasps (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society [=Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology] 159:22-194.

Vilhelmsen, L., and I. Miko. 2010. Curators/Head..

Vilhelmsen, L., and L. Krogmann. 2006. Skeletal anatomy of the mesosoma of Palaeomymar anomalum (Blood & Kryger, 1922) (Hymentopera: Mymarommatidae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 15:290-306.

Vilhelmsen, L., N. Isidoro, R. Romani, H. H. Basibuyuk, and D. L. J. Quicke. 2001. Host location and oviposition in a basal group of parasitic wasps: the subgenual organ, ovipositor apparatus, and associated structures in the Orussidae (Hymenoptera, Insecta). Zoomorphology [was Zeitschrift für Morphologie der Tiere] 121:63-84.

Vilhelmsen, L., V. Perrichot, and S. R. Shaw. 2010. Past and present diversity and distribution in the parasitic wasp family Megalyridae (Hymenoptera). Systematic Entomology 35:658-677.

Ward, P. P. 1993. Systematic studies on Pseudomyrmex acacia-ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Pseudomyrmecinae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 2:117-168.

Ward, P. S. 1984. A revision of the ant genus Rhytidoponera (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in New Caledonia. Australian Journal of Zoology 32:131-175.

Ward, P. S. 1998. Mesic elements in the Western Nearctic ant Fauna: taxonomic and biological notes on Amblyopone, Proceratium, and Smithistruma (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 61:102-124.

Ward, P. S. 1999. Systematics, Biogeography and host plant associations of the Pseudomyrmex viduus group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Triplaris- and Tachigali-inhabiting ants. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 126:451-540.

Weber, H. 1925. Der Thorax der Hornisse. Zoologische Jahrbücher (Abteilung für Allgemeine Anatomie und Ontologie der Tiere) 67:1-100.

Weber, H. 1933. Lehrbuch der Entomologie. Hamburg u. Berlin, Parey, , 633 pp.

Westwood, J. O. 1839. XLIV On Caprification as practised upon the Figs in the South of Europe and the Levant, with Descriptions of the Insects employed for that Purpose; and Observations upon the Agaon paradoxum of Dalman. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 2:214-224.

Westwood, J. O. 1840. An Introduction to the Modern Classification of Insects.London..

Wharton, B. 2009. Comments., .

Wharton, R. 2006. The Species of Sternanlopius Fischer (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Opiinae) and the Braconid Sternaulus. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 15:317-347.

Wharton, R. A. 2006. The species of Sternaulopius Fischer (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Opiinae) and the braconid sternaulus. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 15:317-347.

Wharton, R. A. 2009. Two new species of Psyttalia Walker (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae) reared from fruit-infesting tephritid (Diptera) hosts in Kenya. ZooKeys 20:349-377.

Wharton, R. A., K. Roeder, and M. J. Yoder. 2008. A monograph of the genus Westwoodia (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Zootaxa 1855:1-40.

Wharton, R., L. Ward, and I. Mikó. 2013. New neotropical species of Opiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) reared from fruit-infesting and leaf-mining Tephritidae (Diptera) with comments on the Diachasmimorpha mexicana species group and the genera Lorenzopius and Tubiformopius. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 243:27-82.

Wheeler, W. M. 1905. Ants from the Summit of Mount Washington. Psyche 12:111-114.

Wheeler, W. M. 1910. Ants, their structure, development and behaviour Ants Columbia Biological Series number 9. Columbia Press, New York 663 pp.

Wheeler, W. M. 1926. The natural history of ants From an unpublished manuscript in the archives of the Academy of Sciences of Paris, by Rene Antoine Ferchault de Reaumur Translated and annotated by William Morton Wheeler. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, London 280 pp.

Whitfield, J. B., J. J. Rodriguez, and P. K. Masonick. 2009. Reared microgastrine wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Yanayacu Biological Station and environs (Napo Province, Ecuador): Diversity and host specialization. Journal of Insect Science 9:1-22.

Williams, F. 1913. Monograph of the Larridae of Kansas. The University of Kansas Science Bulletin 8:119-213.

Wilson, E. O. 1971. The insect societies.:548.

Winston, M. 1978. The proboscis of the long-tongued bees: A comparative study. The University of Kansas Science Bulletin 51:631-667.

Winston, M., and C. Michener. 1977. Dual origin of highly social behavior among bees . Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 74:1135-1137.

Wolff, O. 1875. Das Riechorgan der Biene., 251 pp.

Wong, H. 1963. The external morphology of the adults and ultimate larval instar of the larch sawfly, Pristiphora erichsonii (Htg) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). Canadian Entomologist 100:897-921.

Wootton, R. J. 1979. Function, homology and terminology in insect wings. Systematic Entomology 4:81-93.

Worthley, E. N. 1924. The Biology of Trichopoda pennipes Fab (Diptera, Tachinidae), A parasite of the Common Squash Bug. Psyche 31:57-77.

Woznica, A. J. 2008. Three new Palaearctic species of the genus Gymnomus LOEW, 1863 (Diptera: Heleomyzidae) . Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne (Polish Journal of Entomology) 77:357-366.

Yasumatsu , K. 1939. Three new or unrecorded Apoidea from Saghalien (Hymenoptera). Insecta Matsumurana 13:66-70.

Yasumatsu, K. 1950. Discovery of an ant of the genus Lordomyrma Emery in Eastern Asia (Hym). Insecta Matsumurana 17:73-79.

Yoder, M. J. 2004. Revision of the North American species of the genus Entomacis (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae). Canadian Entomologist 136:323-405.

Yoder, M. J. 2009. Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.

Yoder, M. J., A. A. Valerio, A. Polaszek, L. Masner, and N. F. Johnson. 2009. Revision of Scelio pulchripennis - group species (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae). ZooKeys 20:53-118.

Yoder, M., A. Valerio, A. Polaszek, S. van Noort, L. Masner, and N. Johnson. 2012. Monograph of the Afrotropical species of Scelio Latreille (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), egg parasitoids of acridid grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae). ZooKeys 20:53-118.

Yoshimura, M., and B. Fisher. 2011. A revision of male ants of the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Key to genera of the subfamily Dolichoderinae. Zootaxa 2794:1-34.

Youssef, N. 1971. Topography of the cephalic musculature and nervous system of the honey bee Apis mellifera Linnaeus. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 99:1-54.

Zamprogno, L. N., and C. O. Azevedo. 2014. Phylogeny and reclassification of Pristocera Klug (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae). Insect Systematics and Evolution 45:1-49.

Zander, E. 1900. Beiträge zur Morphologie der männlichen Geschlechtsanhänge der Hymenopteren. Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Zoologie 76:461-489.

Zettel, H., T. Ljubomirov, F. M. Steiner, B. C. Schlick-Steiner, G. Grabenweger, and H. Wiesbauer. 2004. The European ant hunter Tracheliodes curvitarsus and T varus (Hymenoptera: Crabonidae): Taxonomy, species discrimination, distribution, and Biology. Myrmecologische Nachrichten 6:39-47.

ZFA

Zhaurova, K., and R. A. Wharton. 2009. Recognition of Scolobatini and Westwoodiini (Hymenoptera, Ctenopelmatinae) and revision of the component genera. Contributions of the American Entomological Institute 35:1-77.

Zombori, L., and H. Steinmann. 1999. Dictionary of Insect Morphology. Handbuch der Zoologie 4:1-404.