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mx id: 3935 | OBO id: HAO:0000238 | URI: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000238
cupula synonyms: Kapsel, annular lamina, annulus, basal ring, basalstück, cardo, cupule, dernier anneau, gonobase, gonocardo, hornringe, horny ring, lame basialire, lamina annularis, pièce annulaire, pièce basilaire, plaque basilaire, praeputium, preputium, ringstück, sclerite accessorio, sclérite accessoire, sections 1, écailles
Defined (both definition and relationships must be met)
Definition:
The sclerite that is connected via conjunctiva and attached via muscles to abdominal tergum 9 and the gonostyle/volsella complex.
written by: Miko, I. 2009. -2019 Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.

Relationships / properties:
The cupula is a sclerite.
The cupula is part of the cuticle. The cupula is part of the phallobase.

Figures
Trigonalidae ; Orthogonalys pulchella Cresson, 1867; Orthogonalys pulchella [from: 11]
Gasteruptiidae
Biosteres carbonarius
Opius dissitus Muesebeck
Biosteres carbonarius

Label usage (sensu)
cupula by Birket-Smith, S. J. R. 1981. The male genitalia of Hymenoptera – a review based on morphology in Dorylidae (Formicoidea) . Entomologica Scandinavica, Supplement 15:377-397.
gonobase by Michener, C. D. 1944. Comparative external morphology, phylogeny, and a classification of the bees (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 82:151-326.
gonobase by Miko, I. 2009. -2019 Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.
sections 1 by Smith, E. L. 1969. Evolutionary morphology of external insect genitalia 1 Origin and relationships to other appendages. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 62:1051-1079.
basalstück by Enslin, E. 1912. Die Tenthredinoidea Mitteleuropas. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Berlin, Beihefte 1-7:1-790.
dernier anneau by Wheeler, W. M. 1926. The natural history of ants From an unpublished manuscript in the archives of the Academy of Sciences of Paris, by Rene Antoine Ferchault de Reaumur Translated and annotated by William Morton Wheeler. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, London 280 pp.
écailles by André, E. 1879. Species des Hymenopteres d'Europe et d'Algerie., 1012 pp.
gonocardo by Crampton, G. C. 1919. The genitalia and terminal abdominal structures of males, and the terminal structures of the larvae of ‘chalastogastrous’ Hymenoptera. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 21:129-151.
hornringe by Hartig, T. 1837. Die Aderflugler Deutschlands mit besonderer Berucksichtigung ihres Larvenzustandes und ihres Wirkens in Waldern und Garten Bd1 Die Familien der Blattwespen und Holzwespen nebst einer allgemainen Einleitung zur Naturgeschichte der Hymenopterten. Haude und Spenersche Buchhandlung. (s.J. Josephy), Berlin 416 pp.
horny ring by Newport, G. 1838. Observations on the anatomy, habits and economy of Athalia centifoliae. Ent. Soc. Lond.:1-32.
Kapsel by Schenck, A. 1861. Beschreibung nassauischer Bienenarten. Jahrbücher des Nassauischen Vereins für Naturkunde 7:1-106.
lame basialire by Bordas, L. 1893
pièce basilaire by Dufour, L. 1841. Recherches anatomiques et physiologiques sur Orthoptères, les Hyménoptères et les Névroptères. Memoires de l'Académie des Sciences de l'Institut Impérial de France 7:265-647.
plaque basilaire by Seurat, L. G. 1898. Observations sur les organes génitaux des Braconides. Annales des sciences naturelles zoologie et paleontologie 7:293-303.
praeputium by Konow (Teschendorf) 1890
ringstück by Verhoeff, C. 1893. Finden sich für die laminae basales der männlichen Coleopteren Homologa bei den Hymenopteren? 16: 407-412 . Zoologischer Anzeiger 16:407-412.
sclerite accessorio by Berlese, A. 1909. Gli insetti: ioro organizzazione, sviluppo, abitudini e rapporti coll'uomo Volume primo embriologia e morphologia. Via Kramer, Milano 1044 pp.
sclérite accessoire by Boulangé, H. 1914. Sur les appareils copulateurs de Dolerus gonager F et de Dolerus nigratus MUII [Hym Tenthredinidae]. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 1914:416-418.
pièce annulaire by Boulangé, H. 1914. Sur les appareils copulateurs de Dolerus gonager F et de Dolerus nigratus MUII [Hym Tenthredinidae]. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 1914:416-418.
cupule by Audouin, M. 1821. Observationes sur organes copulateures mâles des Bourdons Rapport lit par Latreille en lundi 9 avril . Ann. Gén. Sci. Phys. 8:285-289.
annular lamina by Wheeler, W. M. 1910. Ants, their structure, development and behaviour Ants Columbia Biological Series number 9. Columbia Press, New York 663 pp.
basal ring by Ross, H. H. 1945. Sawfly genitalia: terminology and study techniques. Entomological News (Philadelphia) 56:261-265.
basal ring by Snodgrass, R. E. 1941. The male genitalia of Hymenoptera. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 99:1-86.
basal ring by Schulmeister, S. 2001. Male genitalia and copulation in Hymenoptera. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 82:331-349.
basal ring by Snodgrass, R. E. 1957. A revised interpretation of the external reproductive organs of male insects. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 135:1-60.
lamina annularis by Curators, H. A. O. 2009. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology Curation Team. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.
lamina annularis by Snodgrass, R. E. 1941. The male genitalia of Hymenoptera. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 99:1-86.
gonobase by Smith, E. L. 1970. Hymnoptera. Pp. 156-170 in: Taxonomist's Glossary of Genitalia in Insects 2nd enlarged Edition. Tuxen, S. L. (eds.) Munksgaard,Copenhagen. 359 pp.
gonobase by Michener, C. D. 1956. Hymenoptera. in: Taxonomist’s Glossary of Genitalia in Insects. Tuxen, S. L. (eds.) Munksgaard,Copenhagen. pp.
gonobase by Smith, E. L. 1970. Evolutionary morphology of external insect genitalia 2 Hymenoptera. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 63:1-27.
basal ring by Beck, D. E. 1933. A morphological study of the male genitalia of various genera of bees. Proceedings of the Utah Academy of Sciences 10:89-137.
basal ring by Snodgrass, R. E. 1935. Principles of insect morphology. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York & London 667 pp.
basal ring by Arora, G. L. 1956. The relationship of the Symphyta (Hymenoptera) to other orders of insects on the basis of adult external morphology. Research Bulletin of the East Punjab University (Zoology) 90:85-119.
basal ring by Richards, O. W. 1956. Hymenoptera: Introduction and Keys to Familes Identification of Brittish Insects Volume 6. The Royal Entomological Society of London (RES), London 94 pp.
gonocardo by Ross, H. H. 1937. A generic classification of the nearctic sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta). Illinois Biological Monographs 15:1-173.
gonocardo by Ross, H. H. 1945. Sawfly genitalia: terminology and study techniques. Entomological News (Philadelphia) 56:261-265.
gonocardo by Peck, O. 1937. The male genitalia in the Hymenoptera (Insecta), especially the family Ichneumonidae. Canadian Journal of Research, Section D, Zoological Sciences 15:221-274.
sections 1 by Schulmeister, S. 2001. Male genitalia and copulation in Hymenoptera. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 82:331-349.
basalstück by Smith, E. L. 1970. Evolutionary morphology of external insect genitalia 2 Hymenoptera. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 63:1-27.
dernier anneau by Curators, H. A. O. 2009. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology Curation Team. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.
écailles by Curators, H. A. O. 2009. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology Curation Team. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.
gonocardo by Curators, H. A. O. 2009. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology Curation Team. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.
hornringe by Schulmeister, S. 2001. Male genitalia and copulation in Hymenoptera. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 82:331-349.
horny ring by Schulmeister, S. 2001. Male genitalia and copulation in Hymenoptera. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 82:331-349.
Kapsel by Schulmeister, S. 2001. Male genitalia and copulation in Hymenoptera. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 82:331-349.
lame basialire by Miko, I. 2009. -2019 Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.
pièce basilaire by Curators, H. A. O. 2009. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology Curation Team. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.
plaque basilaire by Curators, H. A. O. 2009. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology Curation Team. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.
ringstück by Curators, H. A. O. 2009. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology Curation Team. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.
sclerite accessorio by Curators, H. A. O. 2009. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology Curation Team. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.
sclérite accessoire by Curators, H. A. O. 2009. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology Curation Team. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.
pièce annulaire by Curators, H. A. O. 2009. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology Curation Team. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.
cupule by Curators, H. A. O. 2009. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology Curation Team. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.
gonobase by Michener, C. D. 1965. A classification of the bees of the Australian and South Pacific regions. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 130:1-362.
annular lamina by Curators, H. A. O. 2009. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology Curation Team. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.
gonobase by Michener, C. D. 1944. A comparative study of the appendages of the eighth and ninth abdominal segments of insects. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 37:336-351.
annulus by Beck, D. E. 1933. A morphological study of the male genitalia of various genera of bees. Proceedings of the Utah Academy of Sciences 10:89-137.
praeputium by Curators, H. A. O. 2009. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology Curation Team. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.
lamina annularis by Verhoeff, C. 1893. Finden sich für die laminae basales der männlichen Coleopteren Homologa bei den Hymenopteren? 16: 407-412 . Zoologischer Anzeiger 16:407-412.
cupula by Miko, I. 2009. -2019 Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.
basal ring by Crampton, G. C. 1919. The genitalia and terminal abdominal structures of males, and the terminal structures of the larvae of ‘chalastogastrous’ Hymenoptera. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 21:129-151.
cupula by Schulmeister, S. 2001. Male genitalia and copulation in Hymenoptera. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 82:331-349.
cardo by Thomson, C. G. 1872. Hymenoptera Scandinaviae Volume 2. H. Ohlsson, 280 pp.
cardo by Zander, E. 1900. Beiträge zur Morphologie der männlichen Geschlechtsanhänge der Hymenopteren. Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Zoologie 76:461-489.
cardo by Schmiedeknecht, O. H. L. 1882. Apidae Europaeae (Die Bienen Europa's) Tomus 1 Nomada, Bombus, Psithyrus et Adrena . Gumperdae te Berolini, Berlin.
basal ring by Townes, H. K. 1939. Nearctic species of Netelia (Paniscus of authors) and a revision of genera of Neteliini (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Lloydia 1:168-231.
cupula by Karlsson, D., and F. Ronquist. 2012. Skeletal Morphology of Opius dissitus and Biosteres carbonarius, with a Discussion of Terminology and Morphological Variation in Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). PLoS ONE 7:1-38.
cupula by hao@lists.hymenopterists.org. 2013. [Hao] What's the preferred term?..
preputium by Nichols, S. W. (eds.). 1989. The Torre-Bueno Glossary of Entomology. New York Entomological Society and the American Museum of Natural History, New York.
Comments and tags
comment added almost 9 years ago by Istvan Miko
comment from M. Ohl, C. Rasmussen, I. Miko: Gonobase, cupula and basal ring have been used for other structures in other orders. Gonobase is the most informative and the only term that is referring the location of the anatomical structure.
  Reference: None provided.
  Cross reference: None provided.

alternative definition added over 10 years ago by Istvan Miko
"basal plate which bears the forceps, and which may possibly represent the sternal region of the tenth or other abdominal segment.
  Reference: Crampton, G. C. 1919. The genitalia and terminal abdominal structures of males, and the terminal structures of the larvae of ‘chalastogastrous’ Hymenoptera. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 21:129-151.
  Cross reference: false

alternative definition added over 7 years ago by Kelly Dew
The sclerite that is usually ring-like and is connected distally to the gonostipes and proximally to the abdominal sternum 9 via muscles and conjunctivae.
  Reference: Karlsson, D., and F. Ronquist. 2012. Skeletal Morphology of Opius dissitus and Biosteres carbonarius, with a Discussion of Terminology and Morphological Variation in Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). PLoS ONE 7:1-38.
  Cross reference: None provided.

alternative definition added over 6 years ago by Istvan Miko
The sclerite that is usually ring-like and is connected distally to the gonostipes via conjunctivae and muscles; proximally to the abdominal sternum 9 via muscles and conjunctivae.
  Reference: Miko, I. 2009. -2019 Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.
  Cross reference: None provided.

comment added over 9 years ago by Matt Yoder
Schulmeister (2001) proposed both cupula and basal ring as the valid terms for the same structure. She used both term in her descriptions. We have chosen cupula as the valid and basal ring as the synonym, because the basal ring is used for analogous structures in Protura and Diptera (Tuxen 1970). The term cupule is also used for a paired structure located on the VIIth abdominal sternite of some Lepidoptera, but these structures are definitely not analogous with the cupula of Hymenoptera.
  Reference: Schulmeister, S. 2001. Male genitalia and copulation in Hymenoptera. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 82:331-349.
  Cross reference: None provided.


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